from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (page 158)
In all organisms, the genetic instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in the chromosomes. Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. DNA molecules contain four different kinds of building blocks, called nucleotides, linked together in a sequential chain. The sequence of nucleotides spells out the information in a gene. Before a cell divides, the DNA sequence of its chromosomes is replicated and each daughter cell receives a copy. DNA controls the expression of proteins by being transcribed into a “messenger” RNA, which is translated in turn by the cellular machinery into a protein. In effect, proteins build an organism’s identifiable traits. When organisms reproduce, genetic information is transferred to their offspring, with half coming from each parent in sexual reproduction. Inheritance is the key factor causing the similarity among individuals in a species population.
from NGSS Appendix E: Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions
from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 158-159)
By the end of grade 2. Organisms have characteristics that can be similar or different. Young animals are very much, but not exactly, like their parents and also resemble other animals of the same kind. Plants also are very much, but not exactly, like their parents and resemble other plants of the same kind.
By the end of grade 5. Many characteristics of organisms are inherited from their parents. Other characteristics result from individuals’ interactions with the environment, which can range from diet to learning. Many characteristics involve both inheritance and environment.
By the end of grade 8. Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of a specific protein, which in turn affects the traits of the individual (e.g., human skin color results from the actions of proteins that control the production of the pigment melanin). Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits.
Sexual reproduction provides for transmission of genetic information to offspring through egg and sperm cells. These cells, which contain only one chromosome of each parent’s chromosome pair, unite to form a new individual (offspring). Thus offspring possess one instance of each parent’s chromosome pair (forming a new chromosome pair). Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited or (more rarely) from mutations. (Boundary: The stress here is on the impact of gene transmission in reproduction, not the mechanism.)
By the end of grade 12. In all organisms the genetic instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in the chromosomes. Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function.
A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 158-159)