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Disciplinary Core Ideas

The continuing expansion of scientific knowledge makes it impossible to teach all the ideas related to a given discipline in exhaustive detail during the K-12 years. But given the cornucopia of information available today virtually at a touch - people live, after all, in an information age - an important role of science education is not to teach "all the fact" but rather prepare students with sufficient core knowledge so that they can later acquire additional information on their own. An education focused on a limited set of ideas and practices in science and engineering should enable students to evaluate and select reliable sources of scientific information and allow them to continue their development well beyond their K-12 school years as science learners, users of scientific knowledge, and perhaps also as producers of such knowledge. (NRC Framework 2012, p. 30-31)


  • PS1: Matter and Its Interactions
  • PS2: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
  • PS3: Energy
  • PS4: Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Life Sciences
  • LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
  • LS2: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics
  • LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Earth and Space Sciences
  • ESS1: Earth's Place in the Universe
  • ESS2: Earth's Systems
  • ESS3: Earth and Human Activity

Engineering, Technology, and Application of Science
  • ETS1: Engineering Design
  • ETS2: Links Among Engineering, Technology, Science, and Society
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