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LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior

How do organisms interact in groups so as to benefit individuals?


Introduction to LS2.D

from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (page 156)

Group behaviors are found in organisms ranging from unicellular slime molds to ants to primates, including humans. Many species, with a strong drive for social affiliation, live in groups formed on the basis of genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or other recognition mechanisms (which may be species specific). Group behavior evolved because group membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their relatives. While some groups are stable over long periods of time, others are fluid, with members moving in and out. Groups often dissolve if their size or operation becomes counterproductive, if dominant members lose their place, or if other key members are removed from the group. Group interdependence is so strong that animals that usually live in groups suffer, behaviorally as well as physiologically, when reared in isolation, even if all of their physical needs are met. 


K-12 Progressions

from NGSS Appendix E: Disciplinary Core Idea Progressions

K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
LS2.D
Social Interactions and Group Behavior

N/A. LS2.D

Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. LS2.D

N/A. LS2.D

Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives. LS2.D


Grade Band Endpoints for LS2.D

from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 156-157)

By the end of grade 2. Being part of a group helps animals obtain food, defend themselves, and cope with changes. Groups may serve different functions and vary dramatically in size. 

By the end of grade 5. Groups can be collections of equal individuals, hierarchies with dominant members, small families, groups of single or mixed gender, or groups composed of individuals similar in age. Some groups are stable over long periods of time; others are fluid, with members moving in and out. Some groups assign specialized tasks to each member; in others, all members perform the same or a similar range of functions. 


By the end of grade 8. Groups may form because of genetic relatedness, physical proximity, or other recognition mechanisms (which may be species specific). They engage in a variety of signaling behaviors to maintain the group’s integrity or to warn of threats. Groups often dissolve if they no longer function to meet individuals’ needs, if dominant members lose their place, or if other key members are removed from the group through death, predation, or exclusion by other members. 

By the end of grade 12. Animals, including humans, having a strong drive for social affiliation with members of their own species and will suffer, behaviorally as well as physiologically, if reared in isolation, even if all of their physical needs are met. Some forms of affiliation arise from the bonds between offspring and parents. Other groups form among peers. Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives. 


Performance Expectations Associated with LS2.D

K-2 3-5 6-8 9-12
N/A
3-LS2-1 N/A HS-LS2-8


Additional Resources

A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (pages 156-157)

Bozemanscience Video

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